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Author: Richard Barbrook


The 1872 Hague Congress of the International Workingmen’s Association
The split in the First International:
British, German & Dutch Sections v. Swiss, Spanish & Italian Sections
Socialism v. Anarchism
Karl Marx v. Mikhail Bakunin
mass party v. revolutionary conspiracy
democratic republic v. local communes
working class v. peasants, students & bandits
organised labour v. spontaneous uprisings

Bakuninists’ forerunners of anarchism:
William Godwin, Enquiry Concerning Political Justice (1789)
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, What is Property? (1840)
Max Stirner, Ego and His Own (1845)

1889 Second International: parliamentary socialism, trade unions and cooperatives
German Social Democratic Party, British Labour Party and French Socialist Party
Friedrich Engels, The Bakuninists at Work
Paul Thomas, Karl Marx and the Anarchists

Libertarianism: invisible dictatorship, propaganda of the deed and collectives
Mikhail Bakunin, Statism and Anarchy
Sergei Nechaev, The Catechism of a Revolutionary
Errico Malatesta, Anarchy

Individualist anarchism v. collectivist anarchism

Anarchist terrorism:
Tsar Alexander II (1881), US President McKinley (1901)
Sidney Street siege (1911), Bonnot gang (1911-12)

General Strike, labour exchanges and workers’ cooperatives
CGT in France, CNT in Spain and IWW in USA
1905 Russian Revolution
Georges Sorel, Reflections on Violence
Peter Kropotkin, Mutual Aid

Socialist Maximalism: anti-parliamentary and syndicalist
Rosa Luxemburg, The Mass Strike, the Political Party and the Trade Unions

Outbreak of 1st World War 1914: patriotism v. internationalism
Benito Mussolini, National Syndicalism, Italian Fascism and the corporate state

October 1917 Russian Revolution
Marx + Bakunin = Bolshevism
vanguard party, revolutionary dictatorship and worker-peasant alliance
1918 dissolution of Constituent Assembly
1921 suppression of the Kronstadt Soviet
V.I. Lenin, State & Revolution
Karl Kautsky, The Dictatorship of the Proletariat

1919 Third International
Totalitarian Communism v. Council Communism
V.I. Lenin, Left-Wing Communism: an infantile disorder
Anton Pannekoek, World Revolution and Communist Tactics

1936 Spanish Revolution
Barcelona workers’ uprising v. fascist military coup
CNT, FAI and the Durruti Column
workers’ militias and peasants’ cooperatives
Popular Front against fascism
1937 Barcelona May Days:
Catalan Nationalists, Stalinists and Socialists v. Anarchists and POUM
George Orwell, Homage to Catalonia
Abel Paz, Durruti

New Left revival of anarchism:
1956 Hungarian Revolution and the Budapest Workers’ Council
1957 CND (Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament) and the Aldermaston marches
1964 Free Speech Movement in UC Berkeley
1965 American invasion of Vietnam
Hippie counter-culture: folk music, rock ‘n’ roll, festivals, happenings, pot, LSD and rural communes
Murray Bookchin, Post-Scarcity Anarchism
Charles Reich, The Greening of America
Abbie Hoffman, Woodstock Nation

May ’68 French Revolution
Sorbonne occupation, general strike and worker-student alliance
Situationist International, Kommune 1 and Italian Autonomism
urban squats, rural communes, feminism, gay liberation and anti-racism
Weather Underground, Red Brigades and the Baader-Meinhof Gang
Guy Debord, The Society of the Spectacle
Dany & Gabriel Cohn-Bendit, Obsolete Communism: the left-wing alternative
Toni Negri, Revolution Retrieved

Punk subculture: independent labels, pirate radio and fanzines
Sex Pistols, Anarchy in the UK (1976)
Class War (1983-9), Stop the City (1983-4, Bash the Rich marches (1984-5) and Poll Tax riot (1990)
Jon Savage, England’s Dreaming
Class War, A Decade of Disorder

Post-modern anarchism: new social movements, anti-prisons and anti-psychiatry
Michel Foucault, Discipline & Punish
Gilles Deleuze & FĂ©lix Guattari, Thousand Plateaus

Green anarchism:
Earth First!, monkey wrenching and primitivism
Theodore Kaczynski, The Unabomber Manifesto
John Zerzan, Why Primitivism?

Alter-globalisation movement:
1999 Seattle protests, World Social Forum and the Black Block
IndyMedia, DIY Culture and social networks
Toni Negri and Michael Hardt, Empire
George McKay, DiY Culture

Within this MySpace version of the electronic agora, cybernetic communism was mainstream and unexceptional. What had once been a revolutionary dream was now an enjoyable part of everyday life.